Investigaciones: Publicaciones

A Populist President Tests El Salvador’s Democracy

  • Sonja Wolf
  • Publicado: 2021

ABSTRACT In June 2019, Nayib Bukele, a former mayor affiliated with the former guerrilla movement FMLN, became president of El Salvador at the head of a new party allied with a splinter faction of the right-wing ARENA party. Capitalizing on the corruption scandals that tainted the two major parties, the youthful businessman rode to victory on an anti-sleaze platform. He has made Twitter his government’s main communications platform, using symbolic politics to achieve high public...


Constraints and military coordination: How ICTs shape the intensity of rebel violence

  • Martín Macías-Medellín & Laura H. Atuesta
  • Publicado: 2021

Summary Why and how do information and communication technologies (ICTs) shape the intensity of rebel violence? Recent studies find that ICTs can both increase and decrease such violence. We argue that, during civil wars, this effect depends on the type of ICTs. Mobile phones give rebels better military coordination to organize violence. In contrast, the internet increases the constraints of rebel groups to use violence. On the one hand, the internet increases the visibility of rebel...


Geographical and socioeconomic disparities in opioid access in Mexico, 2015–19: a retrospective analysis of surveillance data

  • Goodman-Meza, et.al.
  • Publicado: 2021

Summary Background In 2015, Mexico implemented regulatory changes and an electronic system to improve access to prescription opioids. We aimed to investigate trends in opioid dispensing after the implementation of these changes and assess how opioid dispensing varied geographically and by socioeconomic status. Methods In this retrospective analysis of prescription medication surveillance data, we analysed dispensing data for group 1 medications (all opioids, including...


They Must Have Done Something! Socioeconomic Status and Citizens’ Support for the Victims of Violence

  • Daniel Zizumbo-Colunga
  • Publicado: 2020

ABSTRACT Why do some victims of criminal atrocities mobilize the public while others do not? I argue that victims’ socioeconomic background systematically biases citizens’ evaluations. I use experimental methods to assess this claim among a representative sample of citizens and elites interviewed during the Mexican war on drugs. I find citizens to be more likely to dismiss victims as responsible for their misfortune when they come from lower socioeconomic strata, and that this...


“Pick up anything that moves”: a qualitative analysis of a police crackdown againstpeople who use drugs in Tijuana, Mexico

  • Morales M, Rafful C, Baker P, Arredondo J, Kang S, Mittal ML, Rocha-Jiménez T, Strathdee SA, Beletsky L.
  • Publicado: 2020

Abstract Background:Homeless people who use drugs (PWUD) are often displaced, detained, and/or forced into drugtreatment during police crackdowns. Such operations follow a zero-tolerance approach to law enforcement andhave a deleterious impact on the health of PWUD. In Mexico, municipal police officers (MPOs) conducted thelargest crackdown documented at the Tijuana River Canal (Tijuana Mejora) to dismantle an open drug market. Weanalyzed active-duty MPOs’attitudes on the rationale,...


Violencia sexual y reproductiva hacia mujeres que se inyectan drogas en la frontera norte de México. ¿La frontera de los derechos?

  • Angélica Ospina
  • Publicado: 2020

Abstract Objetivo: evidenciar las experiencias de violencia que enfrentan mujeres usuarias de drogas inyectables residentes en Ciudad Juárez, México. Metodología: se analizan 14 entrevistas en profundidad recolectadas por la autora durante el 2013 en espacios de trabajo sexual y en instalaciones de organizaciones de la sociedad civil. Resultados: los datos muestran que la superposición de las condiciones de género, pobreza y uso de drogas sobreexpone a...


Addressing Police Occupational Safety During an Opioid Crisis: The Syringe Threat and Injury Correlates (STIC) Score

  • Leo Beletsky, Daniela Abramovitz, Jaime Arredondo, Pieter Baker, Irina Artamonova, Phil Marotta, Maria Luisa Mittal, Teresita Rocha-Jimenez, Javier A. Cepeda, Mario Morales, Erika Clairgue, Thomas A..
  • Publicado: 2020

  Abstract Objective: To develop and validate Syringe Threat and Injury Correlates (STIC) score to measure police vulnerability to NSI. Methods: Tijuana police officers (N=1,788) received NSI training (2015-2016). STIC score incorporates five self-reported behaviors: syringe confiscation, transportation, breaking, discarding, and arrest for syringe possession. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between STIC score and...


Fentanyl is used in Mexico's northern border: current challenges for drug health policies

  • Clara Fleiz, Jaime Arredondo, Alfonso Chavez, Lilia Pacheco, Luis A. Segovia, Jorge A. Villatoro, Silvia L. Cruz, María E. Medina‐Mora, Juan R. de la Fuente
  • Publicado: 2019

Abstract Background and Aims Results from a recent study among 750 heroin users in three Mexico's northern border cities revealed an increase in white powder availability (also known as China white) and preference for this product among heroin users, as well as a general perception of increased overdose cases among this population. Here, we questioned whether those findings reflect an increased presence of heroin laced with fentanyl, which is associated with greater risks of...


Drug checking services at music festivals and events in a Canadian setting

  • Karen McCrae, Samuel Tobias , Kenneth Tupper , Jaime Arredondo, Bonnie Henry , Silvina Mema , Evan Wood , Lianping Ti
  • Publicado: 2019

Abstract Objectives: Drug checking is a harm reduction intervention that allows for identification of drug composition. The objective of the study was to assess drug market components and concordance between expected substance reported by clients and results from point-of-care drug checking at music festivals and events in British Columbia. Methods: From July to September 2018, we provided drug checking services at four events using combination Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)...


The “War on Drugs” in Mexico: (Official) Database of Events between December 2006 and November 2011

  • Laura Atuesta, Oscar Siordia y Alejandro Madrazo
  • Publicado: 2019

Abstract The objective of this text is to describe the three categories that the Drug Policy Program at the Center for Teaching and Research in Economics (CIDE-PPD) database comprises, their limitations, and their main features. Additionally, we explain what we believe to be the source of the database we originally received and analyze its accuracy by comparing it with public records. We describe the validation and codification processes the database was subjected to, as well as the main...


Drug Policy in Mexico: The Cause of a National Tragedy—A Radical but Indispensable Proposal to Fix It

  • Ernesto Zedillo, Catalina Pérez-Correa, Alejandro Madrazo y Fernanda Alonso
  • Publicado: 2019

Abstract For over a decade, the Mexican government has invested itself in a “frontal attack” on drug trafficking organizations with catastrophic results. Little to nothing has been gained in limiting drug production, use, or trafficking, while violence has skyrocketed and major institutional and human rights crises have evolved. Through a multidisciplinary approach—which includes history, sociology, policy analysis, and constitutional doctrine—this essay evaluates...


Cambios en las dinámicas de compraventa y uso de drogas. Un análisis generacional para Hermosillo, Sonora

  • Angélica Ospina
  • Publicado: 2019

Abstract El artículo examina cambios generacionales en las formas de vinculación entre delincuencia organizada y varones con uso problemático de drogas en Hermosillo, Sonora. Para ello, se reconstruyen narrativas biográficas que relacionan el tiempo individual de los varones participantes con el tiempo histórico de la producción y tráfico de drogas ilegales en México y el tiempo social de los cambios socioeconómicos...


Interactive Versus Video-Based Training of Police to Communicate Syringe Legality to People Who Inject Drugs: The SHIELD Study, Mexico, 2015-2016

  • Arredondo, et.al.
  • Publicado: 2019

Abstract Objectives. To assess how instructional techniques affect officers' intent to communicate syringe legality during searches in Tijuana, Mexico, where pervasive syringe confiscation potentiates risk of HIV and HCV among people who inject drugs (PWID) and of occupational needle-stick injury among police. Methods. Using the SHIELD (Safety and Health Integration in the Enforcement of Laws on Drugs) model, Tijuana police underwent training to encourage communication of...


Attitudes towards safe consumption sites among police and people with lived experience in Tijuana, Mexico: initial report from the field

  • Jaime Arredondo-Sánchez Lira, Clara Fleiz-Bautista, Pieter Baker, Jorge A. Villatoro-Velázquez, Mario Domínguez-García, Leo Beletsky
  • Publicado: 2019

Abstract   Introduction. Mexico northern border has high levels of heroin use. For more than 10 years, the country has implemented several harm reduction interventions to reduce the risks associated with drug use. New strategies such as Safe Consumption Sites (SCS) must be considered as a next step to service vulnerable populations and increase their health outcomes. Objective. This report seeks to measure and compare attitudes on a potential SCS intervention in Tijuana among...


Trusting the source: The potential role of drug dealers in reducing drug-related harms via drug checking

  • Geoff Bardwell, Jade Boyd, Jaime Arredondo, Ryan McNeil, Thomas Kerr
  • Publicado: 2019

Abstract Objectives: Drug checking technologies (DCTs) have been implemented as a response to the ongoing opioid overdose epidemic. We examined the level of trust people who use drugs (PWUD) have in their drug dealers as well as their perspectives on the potential for drug dealers to use DCTs to provide knowledge of drug contents to their customers. Methods: We conducted one-to-one qualitative semi-structured interviews with 20 PWUD in Vancouver, Canada's Downtown Eastside....


Assessing police officers’ attitudes and legal knowledge on behaviors that impact HIV transmission among people who inject drugs

  • Cepeda, J. et.al.
  • Publicado: 2018

Abstract Background Policing practices such as syringe confiscation and arrest can act as important social-structural drivers of HIV risk among people who inject drugs (PWID). However, police referral to treatment and other services may improve the health of PWID. Little is known about the role of modifiable attitudinal and knowledge factors in shaping officer behavior. Using baseline findings from a police education program (PEP), we assessed relationships between drug policy...


Brief Report: Improving Police Conceptual Knowledge of Mexico’s Law on Cannabis Possession

  • Mittal, M. et.al.
  • Publicado: 2018

Abstract Background and objectives Policing practices do not reflect recent decriminalization of drug possession in Mexico. We assessed knowledge of cannabis law as part of a police education program (PEP) post-drug law reform in Tijuana. Methods Officers took pre-/post-PEP surveys; random subsample (n = 759) received follow-up assessments. Longitudinal logistic regression (pre-, post-, 3-months post-PEP) measured knowledge of cannabis law. Results PEP...


Mourning our dead: The impact of Mexico’s war on drugs on citizens’ depressive symptoms

  • Iván Flores Martínez y Laura Atuesta
  • Publicado: 2018

Abstract Background Research has shown the substantial impact on mental health for victims of drug-related crime in Mexico, especially individuals who have been heavily exposed to violence. However, the effect of drug-related violence in non-victims has been less studied because causal pathways via indirect violence are more ambiguous. We argue that drug-related violence does have an influence on the mental health of non-victims: For example, because of how violence is publicized...


Factors associated with extrajudicial arrestfor syringe possession: results of adepartment-wide survey of municipalpolice in Tijuana, Mexico

  • Morales, et.al.
  • Publicado: 2018

Abstract Background: Mexican law permits syringe purchase and possession without prescription. Nonetheless, people whoinject drugs (PWID) frequently report arrest for syringe possession. Extrajudicial arrests not only violate human rights,but also significantly increase the risk of blood-borne infection transmission and other health harms among PWID andpolice personnel. To better understand how police practices contribute to the PWID risk environment, prior researchhas primarily examined...


The global health and equity imperative for safe consumption facilities

  • Beletsky, L. et.al.
  • Publicado: 2018

The first safe consumption facility (SCF) opened its doors in 1986, in Bern, Switzerland, intending to curb drug overdose-related deaths and prevent other drug-related harm in people who inject drugs (PWID). Since then, communities who have adopted the SCF approach have seen decreases in HIV incidence, injection-related litter and disorder, and drug overdose.Use of SCFs is also associated with uptake of treatment for drug use and other recovery assistance services. Mounting evidence...


The effect of public health-oriented drug law reform on HIV incidence in people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico: an epidemic modelling study

  • Alejandro Madrazo, et al.
  • Publicado: 2018

Summary Background As countries embark on public health-oriented drug law reform, health impact evaluations are needed. In 2012, Mexico mandated the narcomenudeo reform, which depenalised the possession of small amounts of drugs and instituted drug treatment instead of incarceration. We investigated the past and future effect of this drug law reform on HIV incidence in people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods In this epidemic modelling study, we used data from the El...


La "guerra contra las drogas". Análisis de los combates de las fuerzas públicas 2006-2011.

  • Alejandro Madrazo, Rebeca Calzada y Jorge Javier Romero
  • Publicado: 2018

Resumen El objetivo planteado es entender mejor las prácticas concretas de las fuerzas públicas en el contexto de la “guerra contra las drogas” durante el periodo de 2006 a 2011. Para ello, se analizó la subbase “Combates” publicada por el Programa de Política de Drogas del cide. El texto ofrece un análisis estadístico-descriptivo de los datos allí contenidos e identifica dos principales tendencias en las...


Undermining Constitutionalism in the Name of Policy: The Constitutional Costs of the War on Drugs

  • Alejandro Madrazo y Antonio Barreto
  • Publicado: 2018

Abstract Public policies are supposed to be transitory measures meant to faceand solve public problems. Constitutional design, by contrast, involves per-manent decisions adopted to rule the inner workings of the polity and itsgovernment. Although policy is most often imagined as transitory and con-stitutional law as permanent, some policy decisions reconfigure constitu-tional design permanently. This Article proposes a new analytic frameworkfor rendering visible and understanding the...


The law on the streets: Evaluating the impact of Mexico's drug decriminalization reform on drug possession arrests in Tijuana, Mexico

  • J Arredondo, T Gaines , S Manian, C Vilalta , A Bañuelos, S A Strathdee, L Beletsky
  • Publicado: 2018

Abstract Background: In 2009, Mexican Federal Government enacted "narcomenudeo" reforms decriminalizing possession of small amounts of drugs, delegating prosecution of retail drug sales to the state courts, and mandating treatment diversion for habitual drug users. There has been insufficient effort to formally assess the decriminalization policy's population-level impact, despite mounting interest in analagous reforms across the globe. Methods: Using a dataset of...


Measuring improvement in knowledge ofdrug policy reforms following a police education program in Tijuana, Mexico

  • Arredondo, et.al.
  • Publicado: 2017

Abstract Background:Mexico’s 2009“narcomenudeo reform”decriminalized small amounts of drugs, shifting some druglaw enforcement to the states and mandating drug treatment diversion instead of incarceration. Data from Tijuanasuggested limited implementation of this harm reduction-oriented policy. We studied whether a police educationprogram (PEP) improved officers’drug and syringe policy knowledge, and aimed to identify participant characteristicsassociated with...


Meet the Narco: increased competition among criminal organisations and the explosion of violence in Mexico

  • Laura Atuesta, Aldo Ponce
  • Publicado: 2017

ABSTRACT Several previous studies have found that interventions by security forces against criminal organisations result in increased violence related to organised crime. However, much less is known about how and why this effect occurs. Our study not only identifies the causal mechanisms that explain this outcome, but also evaluates the empirical validity of these mechanisms. Employing a novel data set, we find that following security-force intervention, the number of criminal...


Fragmentation and cooperation: the evolution of organized crime in Mexico

  • Laura Atuesta, Samantha Pérez
  • Publicado: 2017

Some researchers suggest that the observed boom in the levels of violence in Mexico since 2008 are a consequence of placing federal military forces in states with a significant organized crime presence. However, little has been said about the role of the changeable, competitive, and violent nature of criminal organizations on this increasing violence. Using the literature on inter- and intra-state conflicts as matter of analogy to explain organized crime developments in Mexico, fragmentation...


The Spatial-Temporal Pattern of Policing Following a Drug Policy Reform: Triangulating Self-Reported Arrests With Official Crime Statistics

  • Gaines, T. et. al.
  • Publicado: 2017

Abstract Background: In 2009, Mexico enacted a drug policy reform (Narcomenudeo) designed to divert persons possessing small amounts of illicit drugs to treatment rather than incarceration. To assess reform impact, this study examines the spatial-temporal trends of drug-related policing in Tijuana, Mexico post-enactment. Method: Location of self-reported arrests (N = 1,160) among a prospective, community-recruited cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana (N = 552) was...


Prevalence and correlates of needle-stick injuries among activeduty police officers in Tijuana, Mexico

  • Mittal, M. et.al.
  • Publicado: 2016

Abstract Introduction:Police officers are at an elevated risk for needle-stick injuries (NSI), which pose a serious and costly occupationalhealth risk for HIV and viral hepatitis. However, research on NSIs among police officers is limited, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the legality of syringe possession in Mexico, half of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana reportextrajudicial syringe-related arrests and confiscation by police, which has been associated...


Criminals and Enemies? The Drug Trafficker in Mexico's Political Imaginary

  • Alejandro Madrazo
  • Publicado: 2016

Abstract This article compares the official and the widely held discourses about drug traffickers in Mexico’s current War against Drugs. The federal government has obliquely distorted the distinction between a criminal and an enemy, dehumanizing drug traffickers and, thus, opening up a spectrum of tolerance for the repressive actions carried out by the authorities against drug traffickers. Inadvertently, however, official discourse has also politicized and empowered drug...


Narcomessages as a way to analyse the evolution of organised crime in Mexico

  • Laura Atuesta
  • Publicado: 2016

ABSTRACT Drug-related homicides in Mexico have increased to levels never before seen and organised crime has evolved accordingly, becoming more fragmented and diverse. This work analyses the evolution of organised crime and drug-related violence in Mexico by examining how drug trafficking organisations (DTOs) communicate through the messages left next to executed bodies from 2007 to 2011. Results suggest that the use of narcomessages has changed and developed in parallel with...


Public health and international drug policy

  • Alejandro Madrazo, et al.
  • Publicado: 2016

Abstract In September, 2015, the member states of the UN endorsed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for 2030, which aspire to human-rights-centred approaches to ensuring the health and wellbeing of all people. The SDGs embody both the UN Charter values of rights and justice for all and the responsibility of states to rely on the best scientific evidence as they seek to better humankind. In April, 2016, these same states will consider control of illicit drugs, an area of social policy...


Los costos constitucionales de la guerra contra las drogas: dos estudios de caso sobre las transformaciones de las comunidades políticas

  • Antonio Barreto y Alejandro Madrazo
  • Publicado: 2015

Abstract El texto busca ofrecer un marco analítico y comparativo para estudiar en detalle un fenómeno que hasta hoy ha pasado prácticamente inadvertido: los costos constitucionales de la guerra contra las drogas. En las Américas, las políticas públicas adoptadas en un esfuerzo por suprimir los mercados de drogas ilícitas, han requerido o justificado reformas legales y transformaciones institucionales sustantivas. Estos escenarios son...


Do Mexicans flee from violence? The effects of drug-related violence on migration decisions in Mexico

  • Laura Atuesta y Dusan Paredes
  • Publicado: 2015

ABSTRACT This paper attempts to identify the existence of displacement in Mexico caused by drug-related violence. We identify two types of migrants: (i) migrants moving from nonviolent to violent states, driven by better economic opportunities and less expensive cost of living at destination and (ii) migrants moving from violent to nonviolent states: they still migrate even if the cost of living at destination is more expensive and economic opportunities are lower. Our hypothesis is...


Implementing Mexico’s “Narcomenudeo” Drug Law Reform: A Mixed Methods Assessment of Early Experiences Among People Who Inject Drugs

  • Beletsky, L. et.al.
  • Publicado: 2015

Abstract In 2009, Mexico decriminalized small-scale drug possession, instituting drug treatment diversion in lieu of incarceration. To assess initial reform impact, our mixed methods study integrated a structured questionnaire with in-depth interviews assessing legal knowledge, police encounters, and risk behaviors among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana. Between 2010 and 2013, we recruited 737 adults; 32 participated in qualitative interviews. Only 11% reported being aware of the...


The spatial–temporal relationship of policing in areas with high drug activity

  • Gaines, T. et. al.
  • Publicado: 2014

ABSTRACT In 2009, Mexico decriminalized the possession of small amounts of illicit drugs for personal use in order to refocus law enforcement resources on drug dealers and traffickers. This study examines the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters reported by people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico to identify concentrated areas of policing activity after implementation of the new drug policy. Mapping the physical location of law enforcement encounters...


Marcando al delincuente: estigmatización, castigo y cumplimiento del derecho

  • Catalina Pérez Correa
  • Publicado: 2013

Resumen Este texto muestra cómo la aplicación de castigos penales en México afecta de manera desproporcionada a un sector específico de la sociedad: hombres jóvenes provenientes de sectores marginados. Asimismo, analiza la relación entre el uso de este tipo de castigos y el incumplimiento del derecho, y sugiere que al estigmatizar y excluir a ofensores (o presuntos ofensores) provenientes de un determinado grupo social, las penas de prisión...


Uso de la fuerza letal. Muertos, heridos y detenidos en enfrentamientos de las fuerzas federales con presuntos miembros de la delincuencia organizada

  • Catalina Pérez Correa, Carlos Silva y Rodrigo Gutiérrez
  • Publicado: 2012

Abstract Debido al escaso conocimiento sobre los resultados del uso de la fuerza en enfrentamientos entre presuntos miembros de la delincuencia organizada y la Policía Federal, el Ejército y la Marina, el artículo presenta el saldo en materia de muertos, heridos y detenidos de 2008 a 2011, a partir de dos fuentes: reportes de prensa y datos de la Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional. Se muestra que el índice de letalidad del Ejército se ha elevado...